Visual Inspection Procedure of Steel Structure Project
As in order to ensure UTE PECEM & ITAQUI Power Projects steel structures with qualified welds and as a result to get our own welding quality and welding control to a higher level, we will apply visual check, acceptance check to the welds fully comply with AWS D 1.1-2008 <<Structural welding code-steel>> and relative contract technical specification. 2. References and Standards:
Visual inspection shall be implemented with referenced to Table 6.1-Visual Inspection Acceptance Criteria and Figure 5.4-Acceptable and Unacceptable Weld Profiles of AWS D1.1-2008. （3. Safety and Environment:
3.1. In order to prevent from electricity harms, all the electric facilities and working pieces
must contact the ground, the operating area must be keeping dry, and the operators must wear gloves and rubber-soled shoes. Whenever damaged electrical wires was found shall be discarded right away.
3.2. In order to prevent from the harmful dust, fumes and arc, every operator must wear
protective equipments such as gauze face mask, glasses and etc. ）
3.3. The operators shall wear earplugs to protect themselves away from noises in the
3.4. In order to prevent from any harms from molten metal, spark, welding spatter and
heat arises in welding, cutting operation, the operators must wear boot (or otherwise with leg wrapping), fireproofing gloves and head (face) mask.
3.5. All the steel members shall be stacked in a manner orderly, steadily and easy for
3.6. Enough lighting shall be furnished at workshop. Necessary lighting equipment such
as torch shall be furnished to check some hidden areas.
4. Inspection Personnel:
4.1. Certified welding inspector (CWI) by AWS (check the PJP welds on columns and
4.2. Certified quality personnel involved in construction industry.
4.3. Trained inspectors by the CWI, they will perform under controlling and supervising of
5. Inspection Conditions
5.1 The distance between eyes and the tested surface shall not exceed 600mm in direct visual inspection. The angle between sighting line and the tested surface shall be no smaller than 30°. Mirrors may be used to improve the angle of vision.
5.2 The tested surface shall be given adequate lighting, generally not less than 1000 Iux.
5.3 Also the magnifying glass shall be used for tiny defect inspection.
5.4 Such tools as weld leg scale, magnifying glass, flashlight, etc shall be used for
6. Procedures to be Implemented:
6.1 Inspection prior to Welding
6.1.1 Inspection of Trial-Assembly Components
① The groove forms, groove angle, groove depth and the blunt edges shall comply with the requirements of WPS.
② The fusion face shall be free from such defects like interlayers, cracks, damages, burs, etc.
③ The groove of low-carbon steel and alloy steel as well as the neighboring areas within 25mm shall be free from moisture, grease, dust, organic coatings, galvanizing or other foreign substances, which might damage the welding quality.
6.1.2 Assembled Components Inspection
After components are assembled, the matches and gaps between the components shall be inspected. The unfitness, angle gap and distortion of butt joints, the length and gaps of lap joints and the gaps between T-joints and corner joints shall comply with the requirements indicated in 5.22 and 5.23 of AWS D1.1:2008.
6.1.3 Welding Materials Inspection
① Electrodes, wires and flux shall have Material Certificates or Re-test Reports and the quality shall comply with the requirements indicated in 5.3 of AWS D1.1:2008.
② The electrodes and flux shall be baked according to Welding Consumable Control Procedure (06361/HHSF/WP/22350/X./0722).
6.1.4 Preheating Inspection
The preheating temperature shall be measured with temperature pens, thermometers, thermocouples or infrared thermometers, to ensure the preheating temperature, its extent and distribution complying with WPS (06361-HHSF-WP-22350-X.-0707).
6.2 Welding Inspection
6.2.1 Welding methods, operations and sequences shall comply with WPS
6.2.2 For manual arc welding, submerged arc welding and gas-shielded welding, the
welding parameters shall be checked to ensure their complying with WPS (06361-HHSF-WP-22350-X.-0707).
6.2.3 Interlayer surfaces shall be inspected after cleaning, to make sure that the interlayer
surfaces, joints between welding pass and grooves, and groove surfaces shall be clean and free from the cracks, slag, porosity, etc.
6.2.4 Interpass temperature of welding passes that need preheating shall be controlled to
be the same with preheating temperature.
6.2.5 For base metal required preheating, unwelded welds after a pause，the preheating
temperature should meet the temperature required by the process before restarting welding.
6.2.6 The surface shape of welds after back gouging shall comply with the requirements of
WPS (06361-HHSF-WP-22350-X.-0707), and the surface shall be free from defects like incomplete fusion, slag, porosity, cracks, etc.
6.3 Inspection after Welding
6.3.1 Inspection Tools
Welding inspection ruler, measuring gauges and other inspection equipments shall be calibrated and approved by Qualified Inspection Department.
6.3.2 Inspection after welding shall be performed after welds cleaning to ensure the Welds
and the areas around free from slag and spatter.
6.3.3 After welding, the weld length shall be inspected to make sure the actual weld length
not less than the required length in drawings and also to make sure the spacing between welds not larger than the spacing stipulated in drawings.
6.3.4 Visual inspection of welds surface shall be done prior to NDE inspection and seal
inspection (if NDT is required). The acceptance criterion shall be as per Form 6.1 of AWS D1.1:2008.
6.3.5 If post welding heat treatment is needed, the heating rate, heating temperature,
warm holding time, cooling rate, difference in temperature of various parts during different stages and the heat-expansion and cold-contraction in each part shall be inspected. The heating range shall also be inspected for welds that are local heat treated. Inspection results shall meet the requirements of Heat Treatment Procedure and Clause 5.8 of AWS D1.1:2008.
7. NCRs and Repairs:
7.1 Once non-conformance welds are found in finished products during visual or NED inspection, such products shall be segregated and disposed in accordance with Non-Conformance Management Procedure and no further fabrication actions or following procedures shall proceed. Meanwhile, the responsible inspector shall issue the NCR Report (Appendix-A in Non-Conformance Management Procedure) and subimt this report to Chief Engineer for review.
7.2 After reviewing the NCR report, Chief Engineer shall put forward feasible repair
proposals or methods in due time. Without Chief engineer’s approval, no repair actions shall be applied to the non-conformance products.
7.3 Inspectors should clear know defects position, defects properties, cause, and repair
requirements before repairing. Repair more than twice should be approved by client’s technical engineer.
7.4 The surface after defects removed shall meet repair requirements, and the length
removed be 50mm longer than the defective length of both ends, and have a certain slope.
7.5 Inspection of welding repair shall be required as the same as the official welding
7.6 Non-Conformance Report shall be closed in time by the responsible inspector once
the repaired products pass double-inspection.